He came in the room，his clog followed him.
He coming in the room，his clog followed him.
He came in the room，followed by his dog.
(5)工夫差的独立主格构造中，自动方式只能用having+过来分词，被动方式只能用having been +过来分词。如：
Having watered the vegetables，the farmer took a short rest.
Having been given such a good chance，how could she give it up?
(Not) Having dressed myself，I went to the office.
Having dressed myself， I went to the office.
Before/ After having dressed myself，I went to the office.
Before/ After dressing myself I went to the office. = Having been dressed，I went to the office.
The work done ( = After the work had been done)，we went home.
Weather permitting ( = If weather permits) they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.
Given her age，she really did a good job in such a short time.
An important lecture to be given tomorrow ( = As an important lecture will be given tomorrow)，the professor has to stay up late into the night.
He was lying on the grass，his hands crossed under his head( = and his hands were crossed under his head).
A hunter came in，his face red with cold ( = and his face was red with cold).
independent nominative structure is a noun or pronoun (as logical subject), plus a description of words, adverbs, prepositional phrases, infinitive, participle as adverbial in the sentence. The characteristics of
1. independent nominative structure (1) the nominative structure must have two clauses, the ordinary comma and the main clause and leave, but can not use any conjunctions between.
(2) after two differences subject sentence, absolute local subject omitted. When the subject of
(3) is not pided, the two subject must be preserved. Such as:
He came in the room, his clog followed him.
(4). Local initiatives if it is automatic, so it is necessary to use a gerund, if it is over with passive participle. For example,
He coming in the room, his clog followed him.
He, and the right dog follows him.
(5) absolute structure time difference, automatic mode can only use having+ over segmentation, the passive mode can only use having + been over segmentation. For example:
Having watered the vegetables, the farmer took a short rest.
to the vegetables poured out of the water, the farmer worked for a while. How can
Having been given such a good chance, how could she, how?
(6) not& structure; nominative denials, mdash must be put before having. Such as:
(Not) Having dressed myself, I went to the office.
I (no) wear clothes and go to the office.
(7) absolute structure time difference, having cannot be before or after behind relatively, they do not appear at the same time.
Having dressed myself, I went to the office.
, and I went to the office before I finished wearing clothes.
Before/ After dressing myself I went to the office. been I went = Having dressed, to the office.
2. uses the nominative absolute structure of its predicate verb attack time, cause, condition or with status, the equivalent of a clause or a compound sentence.
(1) is used as adverbial
The work done (= After the work had been done). After the implementation of the operation, we went home.
(2) is a conditional adverbial
Weather permitting (= If weather permits) they will go on, and it will be a small seaside tour if weather permits.
Given her age, she really did a good job in job, she thought about her age, and in such a short time, she did a good job.
An important lecture as adverbial of reason to be given tomorrow (As an important lecture will = be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night.
today announced that due to an important lecture, teach may not stay up late.
(4) is the same adverbial
He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed, and the his is on the grass. The
(5) table complements the
A hunter came in, his face red with cold (= = the with, and the hunters go out, and his face is red with cold.
[note] the nominative absolute structure of time, condition or reason, equivalent to an ordinary adverbial clause on the sentence, of reason can also be placed at the end of the sentence; with the table or supplement to clarify, the equivalent of a compound sentence, usually placed on the end of the sentence.